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January 25, 2016

third english civil war

Even so, Charles II in exile had to submit to long negotiations and hard conditions before he was allowed to put himself at the head of the Scottish armies. Fleetwood forced the passage of the Teme, and the bridging train (which had been carefully organized for the purpose) bridged both the Teme and the Severn. The military quality of the Welsh border Royalists was well proved, that of the Gloucestershire Presbyterians not less so, and, based on Gloucester and Worcester as his father had been based on Oxford, Charles II. The Crowning Mercy] Cromwell himself and the main army were to attack the town itself. Only with such troops would a general dare to place a deep river between the two halves of his army or to send away detachments beforehand to reap the fruits of victory, in certain anticipation of winning the victory with the remainder. Charles arrived at Worcester on August 22, and spent five days in resting the troops, preparing for further operations, and gathering and arming the few recruits who came in. In Scotland, "vis-a-vis" the extreme Covenanters, he was a king on conditions, and he was glad enough to find himself in England with some thirty solidly organized regiments under Royalist officers and with no regular army in front of him. His army was kept well in hand, no excesses were allowed, and in a week the Royalists covered 150 miles in marked contrast to the duke of Hamilton's ill-fated expedition of 1648. Cromwell wrote home, indeed, that he was "upon an engagement very difficult," but, desperate as his position seemed, he felt the pulse of his opponent and steadily refused to take his army away by sea. Every hedgerow was contested by the stubborn Royalists, but Fleetwood's men would not be denied, and Cromwell's extreme right on the eastern side of the town repelled, after three hours of hard fighting, the last desperate attempt of the Royalists to break out. A force from Queensferry, covered by the English fleet, was thrown across the Firth of Forth to North Ferry. Only late in June were operations actively resumed between Stirling and Linlithgow. "The Concise Encyclopedia of the Revolutions and Wars of England, Scotland and Ireland 1639-1660", Scarecrow Press, 2004, ISBN 0810851008. pp.9,10] ee also* English Civil War timeline* English Interregnum* English RestorationReferences*Further reading* [http://www.electricscotland.com/history/genhist/hist49.html General History of the Highlands 1650 - 1660] Footnotes, On the August 28, Cromwell fell back on Musselburgh, and on August 31, after embarking his non-effective men, to Dunbar. He marched on Edinburgh by the sea coast, through Dunbar, Haddington and Musselburgh, living almost entirely on supplies landed by the fleet which accompanied him, for the country itself was incapable of supporting even a small army, and on the July 29, he found Leslie's army drawn up and entrenched in a position extending from Leith to Edinburgh.Operations around EdinburghThe same day a sharp but indecisive fight took place on the lower slopes of Arthur's Seat, after which Cromwell, having felt the strength of Leslie's line, drew back to Musselburgh. Under the terms of the "Tender of Union", the Scots were given 30 seats in a united Parliament in London, with Monck appointed as the military governor of Scotland. Early on the August 28, Lambert surprised the passage of the Severn at Upton, 6 miles below Worcester, and in the action which followed Massey was severely wounded. Burntisland, surrendered to Lambert on July 29, gave Cromwell a good harbour upon which to base his subsequent movements. [13] So Scotland, which had twice attempted to impose its will on England, found itself reduced to the position of an English province under martial law. The pretext, rather than the reason, of Fairfax's resignation was his unwillingness to lead an English army to reduce Scotland.Cromwell turned over his command in Ireland to Henry Ireton. About the same time a new militia act was passed that was destined to give full and decisive effect to the national spirit of England in the great final campaign of the war.Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh Edition article GREAT REBELLION 51. In Scotland, "vis-a-vis" the extreme Covenanters, he was a king on conditions, and he was glad enough to find himself in England with some thirty solidly organized regiments under Royalist officers and with no regular army in front of him. In 1648, in the wake of Charles I's arrest, and the growing threat to them from the armies of the English Parliament, the Confederates signed a treaty of alliance with the English Royalists. At first Cromwell sought without success to bring Leslie to battle, but he stormed Callendar House near Falkirk on 13 July, and on 16 July, he began the execution of a brilliant and successful manoeuvre. Both were fought by "nations in arms," by citizen soldiers who had their hearts in the struggle, and could be trusted not only to fight their hardest but to march their best. On July 19, Cromwell made the final arrangements at Berwick-on-Tweed. It was the most brilliant of all Oliver's victories. Operations around Edinburgh] DunbarOn the August 28, Cromwell fell back on Musselburgh, and on August 31, after embarking his non-effective men, to Dunbar. It seemed probable that a great battle would take place between Lichfield and Coventry on or just after August 25, and that Cromwell, Harrison, Lambert and Fleetwood would all take part in it. The enemy was now only 16,000 strong and disheartened by the apathy with which they had been received in districts formerly all their own. The motives of the march and that of the return are alike obscure, but it may be conjectured that, the forces in England under Harrison having now assembled in Lancashire, the Edinburgh-Newcastle-York road had to be covered by the main army. Lilburne entirely routed the enemy at the Battle of Wigan Lane on August 25 and as affairs turned out Cromwell merely shifted the area of his concentration two marches to the south-west, to Evesham.

At first Cromwell sought without success to bring Leslie to battle, but he stormed Callendar House near Falkirk on July 13, and on July 16, he began the execution of a brilliant and successful manoeuvre. He had not to wait long. On August 9, Charles was at Kendal, Lambert hovering in his rear, and Harrison marching swiftly to bar his way at the Mersey. His army was kept well in hand, no excesses were allowed, and in a week the Royalists covered 150 miles in marked contrast to the duke of Hamilton's ill-fated expedition of 1648. Lambert and Fleetwood were to force their way across the Teme (a little river on which Prince Rupert of the Rhine had won his first victory in 1642) and attack St John's, the western suburb of Worcester.Encyclopaedia Britannica Eleventh Edition article GREAT REBELLION 59. Ireland had been at war since the rebellion of 1641, with most of the island being controlled by the Irish Confederates. The result was that the army was "purged" of 80 officers and 3000 soldiers as it lay within musket shot of the enemy. But Charles II merely used Montrose as a threat to obtain better conditions for himself from the Covenanters. Everything had been foreseen both by Cromwell and by the Council of State in Westminster.

On August 9, Charles was at Kendal, Lambert hovering in his rear, and Harrison marching swiftly to bar his way at the Mersey.

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