Scotland has an excellent reputation for welcoming people from around the world to our shores to live, work and study, and this diversity brings with it many different languages, spoken by a diverse and growing population. From the mid-sixteenth century, written Scots was increasingly influenced by the developing Standard English of Southern England due to developments in royal and political interactions with England. The orthography of Early Scots had become more or less standardised by the middle to late sixteenth century. :168 Consequently, this written Scots looked very similar to contemporary Standard English, suggesting a somewhat modified version of that, rather than a distinct speech form with a phonological system which had been developing independently for many centuries.
However, others did scorn Scots, such as Scottish Enlightenment intellectuals David Hume and Adam Smith, who went to great lengths to get rid of every Scotticism from their writings. That began to diverge from the Northumbrian variety due to 12th and 13th century immigration of Scandinavian-influenced Middle English-speakers from the North and Midlands of England. The eighteenth-century Scots revival saw the introduction of a new literary language descended from the old court Scots, but with an orthography that had abandoned some of the more distinctive old Scots spellings and adopted many standard English spellings.  Before the end of the fifteenth century, English speech in Scotland was known as "English" (written Ynglis or Inglis at the time), whereas "Scottish" (Scottis) referred to Gaelic. Previous factNext fact.
However, with the increasing influence and availability of books printed in England, most writing in Scotland came to be done in the English fashion. Than her guidman, Joseph, bein an upricht man, and no desirin her name sud be i' teh mooth o' the public, was ettlin to pit her awa' hidlins. :896:126 Whereas Gaelic was the dominant language in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland, the Lowlands of Scotland adopted the language of Scots. In particular, the word srath (anglicised as "Strath") is a native Goidelic word, but its usage appears to have been modified by its Brittonic cognate ystrad, whose meaning is slightly different.
Scots is a language with a huge number of local varieties, each with its own distinctive character, and part of the experience of travelling around Scotland is hearing it straight from the mouths of locals – and possibly asking what it means!
Because standard English now generally has the role of a Dachsprache, disputes often arise as to whether the varieties of Scots are dialects of Scottish English or constitute a separate language in their own right. Each of the numerous languages spoken in Scotland during its recorded linguistic history falls into either the Germanic or Celtic language families. After the Union and the shift of political power to England, the use of Scots was discouraged by many in authority and education, as was the notion of "Scottishness" itself. This page was last edited on 22 September 2020, at 09:39. While some languages are spoken by only a few, others are the primary language of entire communities. Much of the material used was often Standard English disguised as Scots, which caused upset among proponents of Standard English and proponents of Scots alike.
A Scottish Government study in 2010 found that 85% of around 1000 respondents (being a representative sample of Scotland's adult population) claim to speak Scots to varying degrees. The UK government now accepts Scots as a regional language, and recognised it under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. p.61, "University Coat of Arms; University of St Andrews", List of declarations made with respect to treaty No. It has been difficult to determine the number of speakers of Scots via census, because many respondents might interpret the question "Do you speak Scots?" Scottish Gaelic contains a number of apparently P-Celtic loanwords, but as Q-Celtic has a far greater overlap with P-Celtic than with English in terms of vocabulary, it is not always possible to disentangle P- and Q-Celtic words.  The Scottish Government's Pupils in Scotland Census 2008 found that 306 pupils spoke Scots as their main home language.  15,723 of these reside in the Outer Hebrides, where the language is spoken by the majority of the population.  This modern literary dialect, 'Scots of the book' or Standard Scots, once again gave Scots an orthography of its own, lacking neither "authority nor author". The Celtic languages of Scotland can be divided into two groups: Goidelic (or Gaelic) and Brittonic (or Brythonic). The definite article the is used before the names of seasons, days of the week, many nouns, diseases, trades and occupations, sciences and academic subjects. . p. 60-61, Macafee, C. (2004). English is the main language spoken in Scotland today and has been the since the 18th Century. However, as Gaelic medium education grows in popularity, a newer generation of literate Gaels is becoming more familiar with modern Gaelic vocabulary.
After the twelfth-century reign of King David I and the so-called "Davidian Revolution", the Scottish monarchs are perhaps better described as Scoto-Norman than Gaelic, often preferring French culture to native Scottish culture. Most proposals entailed regularising the use of established 18th and 19th century conventions, in particular the avoidance of the apologetic apostrophe. From the 13th century Early Scots spread further into Scotland via the burghs, early urban institutions which were first established by King David I. The Nuttis Schell: Essays on the Scots Language Presented to A. J. Aitken, Aberdeen University Press, p. 75.
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